Vaccination against forest tick encephalitis is recommended for outdoor activities in forested areas in the countries where the infection occurs (e.g. relevant for orienteering runners, forestry workers, and people who will be hiking or camping). The risk of infection can vary significantly within small areas. If possible, check with local contacts whether vaccination is necessary.
We travel abroad more and more, whether for work or on holiday. The earlier you start your travel preparations, the better. If you are visiting countries with a high risk of infection, there may often be a need for vaccines and other protection. Certain vaccines must be taken as early as 4 weeks before departure. The recommendations below are based on recommendations from the Folkehelseinstituttet (FHI), Verdens helseorganisasjon (WHO), og Center for Disease Control (CDC).
Brief about recommendations for vaccines
The recommendations depend on the type of travel and local geographical conditions, as well as seasonal variations in the spread of the diseases. An assessment must also be made of the traveler's general state of health, age, and previous vaccinations.
Recommended for travelers to medium and high risk areas who may have unprotected sex, inject drugs, come into contact with the healthcare system or be exposed to accidents (the risk increases with the length of stay).
It should be considered to vaccinate children before long-term stays, because they can be infected by children in the local environment during play:
Intermediate risk areas: 2 – 8% of the population are chronic carriers of the hepatitis B virus. Share in high-risk areas: > 8%.
Medication prevention of malaria and/or mosquito bite protection is recommended for travelers to risk areas. There is no vaccine against malaria.
Japanese encephalitis vaccine is recommended for those who during the disease season plan to stay outside a big city for 3-4 weeks, or more, in areas where the disease usually occurs. Vaccination should also be considered for shorter stays if the conditions are such that the risk of infection is higher than normal. The vaccine can be given from 2 months of age.
Relevant for travelers who will live or travel in areas where rabies occurs and where medical treatment is not readily available, or for those who will work with animals. Children in particular can conceivably come into contact with infectious animals without their parents knowing about it, so it may be wise to vaccinate children who will live in areas where rabies occurs.
Forest tick cephalitis vaccine (Tbe vaccine)
Some countries require a yellow fever certificate for all travelers. A yellow fever vaccine may be required in countries with a yellow fever risk. Many countries also require a yellow fever certificate for travelers coming from countries with a risk of yellow fever.
The overview of yellow fever is taken from WHO International Travel and Health 2012 and CDC Yellow Book 2012.
People who are going to travel to areas where there is, or has just been, an epidemic of group C disease.
The meningococcal ACWY vaccine is recommended for the "meningococcal belt" and large parts of tropical Africa. The recommendation primarily applies to children and young people under approx. 25 years and people on longer stays, but can also be considered for adults on shorter stays, depending on the epidemiological situation at any given time. Vaccination of pilgrims to Saudi Arabia with ACWY vaccine is mandatory.
Vaccination against typhoid fever is recommended when traveling to areas where typhoid fever is endemic. The risk of infection increases with the length of the stay and is greatest with extensive close contact with the local population. Vaccination is recommended for those who will have a longer stay in most countries outside Western Europe, especially in Africa, South America, and Asia, if the journey goes outside tourist destinations and in the countryside (work stay, immigrants visiting former homelands, "backpacking" with low price standard at accommodation and eating places).
Bcg vaccine (Tuberculosis)
!NB Our customers are referred to Bergen Smittevernkontor for Bcg vaccination.
Recommended for people who will stay in countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis for more than three months, and have close contact with the local population.
Etec vaccine (Tourist's diarrhoea)
Oral vaccine (oral vaccine) against cholera provides some protection against infection with enterotoxin-producing E. coli (ETEC). The protection is approx. 60%, and has a documented duration of approximately 3 months. About half of cases of tourist diarrhea are caused by ETEC. The protection against tourist diarrhea is so low that the pharmaceutical authorities no longer approve the vaccine for this indication.